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Partial Characterization of the Physicochemical Properties of Six Indonesia Palma Starches

Pontoh , Julius (2012) Partial Characterization of the Physicochemical Properties of Six Indonesia Palma Starches. BULETIN PALMA, 13 (1). pp. 46-53. ISSN 1979-679X

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    Abstract

    Palm starches have been used for staple food in many places throughout South East Asia. The limited information about their properties has limited their application in food and other industrial uses. This study was aimed to characterize the physicochemical properties of different palm starches as potential sources of food and industrial application. Two sago (Metroxylon rumphii, I and II) starch samples and one “sago baruk” (Arenga microcarpa) starch sample were obtained from several starch processors in Sangihe, North Sulawesi. One sago (M. sagu), one sugar palm (A. pinnata II) and one cassava starch samples were obtained from a small commercial plant in Bogor. One sugar palm (A. pinnata I) starch sample was processed following the traditional method from a tree in Tomohon North Sulawesi. Each sample was sun dried after purchase in order to reduce the moisture content. A commercial corn starch (Best Foods Canada Inc, Etobicoke, Canada) sample was purchased from a grocery store in Canada. The chemical analysis showed that the protein and lipids content of palm starch were similar to cassava, but lower than corn starch. Palm and cassava starches were higher in dietary fiber than corn starch. Palm starch samples were higher in ash content than corn and cassava starch. This difference was almost likely due to the limit processing of these samples when compared to corn. Amylose content was higher in all palm starches than that in corn and cassava starches. Palm starch granules were larger than cassava and corn starch granules. The Arenga pinnata starch granules were large (12-70 um) and had an elongated shape, whereas, A. microcarpa and Metroxylon were medium (12-50 um) and oval or egg shaped. Some holes were observed for some palm starch samples. Brabender viscosity of A. pinnata starch samples were higher than that for cassava and corn starch samples. Variability in viscosity profiles among palm starch samples could have been due to the processing which resulted in chemical and physical alteration in the starch granules. The results indicated that palm starches especially starch from A. pinnata have several unique properties that could have special applications in food and other industrial uses. Pati palma telah digunakan sebagai maknan pokok di banyak tempat di seluruh Asia Tenggara. Keterbatasan informati tentang sifat sifatnya telah membatasi penggunaan mereka dalam makanan dan industrilainnya. Penelitian ini ditujukan pada sifat sifat fisikokimia dari berbagai pati palma sebagai bahan baku untuk makanan dan industri. Dua jenis sampel pati sagu (Metroxylon rumphii, I dan II) dan satu sampel pati sagu baruk (Arenga microcarpa) didapat dari beberapa pengolah pati di Sangihe, Sulawesi Utara. Satu sampel pati sagu (M. sagu), satu sampel pati aren (A. pinnata II) dan satu sampel pati ubi kayu diperoleh dari satu pabrik pengolahan komersial pati di Bogor. Satu sampel pati aren (A. pinnata I) diolah mengikuti cara tradisional dari sebuah pohon di Tomohon, Sulawesi Utara. Masing masing sampel dijemur di panas matahari untuk mengurangi kadar air. Satu sampel pati jagung (Best foods Canada Inc. Etobicoke, Canada) diperoleh dari sebuah toko di Kanada. Analisa kimia menunjukan bahwa kandungan protein dan lemak dari pati palma adalah sama dengan yang dari ubi kayu, tetapi lebih rendah dari pati jagung. Pati palma dan ubi kayu mengandung serat makanan yang lebih tinggi dari pati jagung. Kandungan abu dari pati palma lebih tinggi dari yang dari jagung dan ubi kayu. Perbedaan perbedaan ini mungkin lebih disebabkan oleh keterbatasan intensitas pengolahan bahan pati palma dibandingkan dengan pada pati jagung. Kandungan amilosa dalam pati palma lebih tinggi dari dalam pati jagung dan ubi kayu. Granula pati palma lebih besar dibandingkan dengan pati jagung maupun ubi kayu. Butiran pati aren berukuran besar (12-70 um) dan mempunyai bentuk yang memanjang, sedangkan butiran pati sagu baruk maupun sagu berukuran sedang (12-50 um) dan berbentuk oval atau seperti telur. Beberapa lobang terlihat pada butiran pati palma. Viskositas Brabender dari pati aren lebih tinggi dari viskositas pati jagung dan ubi kayu. Variabilitas dalam profil viskositas diantara pati palma kemungkinan berhubungan dengan pengolahan yang menghasilkan perubahan kimia dan fisika dari butiran pati. Hasil hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa pati palma, khususnya pati aren memiliki beberapa sifat khusus yang dapat dimanfaatkan untuk penggunaan yang khusus dalam makanan dan industri lainnya.

    Item Type: Article
    Uncontrolled Keywords: Starch, palm, sugar palm, sago, proximate composition, amylase, viscoamylograph,Pati, palma, aren, sagu, komposisi proximat, amilosa, viskoamilograf
    Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
    Divisions: Fakultas Matematika dan IPA > Kimia
    Depositing User: Steven Ch. Kaunang
    Date Deposited: 15 Jul 2014 21:35
    Last Modified: 15 Jul 2014 21:35
    URI: http://repo.unsrat.ac.id/id/eprint/645

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